The contrails or defractory trails left by airplanes in the sky are a result of a complex polynomial. Airplanes fly in the highest layer of the troposphere, where the temperature is around -56°C, and clouds form when air condenses due to its extreme low temperature. The process involves water vapor from the combustion gases generated by airplane engines, which is much hotter than ambient air and condenses to create snowy grooves.
Another factor that contributes to contrail formation is the expansion of gas as it leaves the plane. Inside the engine, molecules are compressed, and when they exit, they expand rapidly, creating a cooling effect on surrounding air and promoting condensation. This phenomenon is known as Prandtl-Glauert condensation clouds.
It’s interesting to note that not all airplanes leave a wake behind them. The efficiency of a turbojet engine determines whether or not it produces contrails. The coefficient between the work done by the engine and the chemical energy it produces measures this efficiency. Additionally, studying contra